Friday Morning Manna                                                          

August 30, 2019

Nathaniel Fajardo                                                   

The First and Second Adam Compared and Contrasted

The first Adam and the “second or last Adam” share certain specific similarities and dissimilarities, beginning with Name: The first one was literally named; the “second” or “last” one was a spiritual application to God incarnate. 

On the meaning and significance of names in the Bible we quote from the SDA Bible Dictionary, Vol. 8 Commentary Reference Series, art., “Name”: 

      “The Hebrews, like other ancient Near Eastern peoples, attached great significance to personal names. They had literal meanings, sometimes symbolic of the character and personality of the one designated the name, sometimes reflecting the feelings or moods of the one/s giving the name. Hereditary family names were practically nonexistent in Biblical times.  When it was necessary to distinguish between two [or more] persons with the same name, an epithet was often added that would identify the individual. For example, Elijah the Tishbite, Jesus of Nazareth, Joseph of Arimathea, Saul of Tarsus, James the son of Alphaeus, Judas the brother of James, etc. Some individuals were called by an additional or even an alternate name, referred to as “surname” (Acts 10: 5; cf. Mark 3: 16, 17, KJV). Such names as Abraham, Israel, Joshua are examples of additional names or names that replaced the former names of the individuals involved.” 

     [NOTE: The New Testament mentions seven different women all named Mary. They are distinguished from one another as follows: The mother of Jesus (Matt. 1: 16; wife of Cleophas (John 19: 25); mother of James and Joses (Matt. 27: 56); Mary Magdalene, who was delivered from 7 devils (Matt 27: 56, 61; Luke 8: 2); the sister of Martha and Lazarus (John 11: 1, 2); Mark’s mother ( (Acts 12: 12-17); a Christian disciple at Rome ( Rom. 16: 6).  

     “As to form and structure, Hebrew names follow patterns that seemed strange to the modern mind. Frequently the Bible name was compounded from two or more words that might express an abbreviated sentence, as in the following examples: ‘Abidan, my father is judge;’ ‘Ichabod, ‘the glory is departed;’ etc.  Occasionally the name consisted of as single word, such as Deborah, ‘bee’; Barak, ‘lightning’; Caleb, ‘dog’; Jonah, ‘dove’, etc. Often the name was verbal in form: ‘Saul, (asked of God’) or lent (to God)’; Nathan, ‘He (that is, God) has given’; Baruch, ‘blessed,’ etc. 

     Still other Biblical names simply reflected various terms of affection, such as Naomi, ‘my pleasantness;’ Tabitha, ‘gazelle;’ and Samson, possibly ‘little sun.’ 

      Perhaps the most popular type of name among the Israelites was one that contained some reference to the true God.  Such a name was often a pious declaration of faith. For example, Elijah means ‘Yahweh is my God’; other names acknowledged special some special blessing received from the Lord, perhaps in the birth of the child thus named Examples are Nathanael, ‘God has given;’ Berachiah, ‘Yahweh has blessed’; Hezekiah, ‘’Yahweh has strengthened’; 

     Theophorous names, that is, names containing the name of God, may usually be recognized in the Bible by such prefixes as Jah-, Je,- Jeho- (which are transliterations of abbreviated forms of the divine name; see Yahweh), the suffixes -iah and -jah (also forms of the divine name) , the prefixes *El- or El-I, and the suffix -el (transliterations of the abbreviated word for God).

     “In the New Testament Jesus is naturally given constant emphasis. Special instructions were given to His parents as to the selection of His name (Matt. 1: 21, 23); His followers were invited to pray in His name (John 16: 23, 24); because of His sacrifice He was given a name above every other name (Phil. 2: 9, 10); salvation is obtained through His name (Col. 3: 17); and the early Christians were willing to suffer any humiliation for the sake of that name (cf. Acts 5: 41). ‘Name’ in some of these and other passages assumes a wider meaning than that by which a person is known or designated, such as ‘person,’ ‘character,’ ‘reputation,’ ‘authority,’ etc. (see Exo. 5: 23; 34: 5; Deut. 7: 24; Acts 1: 15; Rev. 3: 4, etc.).” – End.  

The first proper name, Adam, was given by the Creator himself to the first member and father of the human family before the first seventh day of earth week was named the Sabbath. The Hebrew Adametymologically means either “ruddy” or “formed,” i.e., “a human being.” Ruddy, likely the tint of the clay from which he was formed and suggestive of a being in the consummate “pink of health” of body, mind, soul and spirit—an outward reflection of the inner core of one “made in the image and likeness” of the Creator. 

On the other hand, and in contrast, Apostle Paul by inspiration draws a parallel between Adam and Christ, calling our Savior the “last” or “second” Adam.” In the scripture passages cited below, it is clear that the name or designation “last or second Adam” had less to do with “personality,” “characteristics,” or “reputation” but a parallelism indispensable to “fleshing out” the core means of the plan of salvation, necessitated by the former’s disobedience causing “many to sin” but redeemed by the latter’s obedience, resulting in the “salvation of many.” In short, literally and spiritually: death in the first Adam but life in the second Adam. Let’s read (emphasis provided):

     “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered into the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread [passed into, KJV] to men, because all men sinned [and the wages of sin is death, Rom. 6: 23]— (For until the law sin was in the world, but sin is not imputed when there is no law., nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, who is a type of Him to come. . . . For by one man’s offense death reigned through the onemuch more those who receive the abundance of grace and the gift of righteousness will reign in life through the One, Jesus Christ). Therefore, as through one man’s offense judgment came to all men, resulting in condemnation, even so through one Man’s righteous act the free gift came to all men, resulting in justification of life. For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners, so also by one Man’s obedience shall many [not all] be made righteous. Moreover, the law entered that the offense might abound [made manifestly clear]. But when sin abounded, grace abounded much more, so that as sin reigned in death, even so might grace reign through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord.” Rom. 5: 12-14, 17-21, NKJV. Question: Who reigns in the throne of our hearts, minds and lives? Christ the second Adam with His amazing, empowering grace? Or Satan, “the father of lies and murderer from the beginning.”? The name Jesus means “He shall save His people from their sins.” Matt. 1: 21. 

     “But now Christ is risen from the dead, and has become the first fruits of them who have fallen asleep. For since by man came death, by Man also came the resurrection of the dead. For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ all shall be made alive.  But each one at his own orderChrist the first fruitsafterward those who are Christ’s at His coming.” 1 Cor. 15: 20-22, 45, NKJV.  

      NOTE: The Bible never speaks of “second-fruits,” only “first-fruits.” The typical offering of the first-fruits was waved before the Lord by the priest on the third day of the Old Testament Passover. On the fourth and last Passover (reckoned from His baptism, 27 A.D.) He celebrated with the Twelve on the Thursday night just before His betrayal by Judas, Christ Himself instituted the simple Lord’s Supper service, permanently replacing the Passover, thereby rendering a continued observance of the former, a rejection of Christ’s sacrifice as the Lab of God. At Christ’s resurrection on the third day, type had met antitype. As Paul says, henceforth, “For indeed Christ, our Passover, was sacrificed for us.” 1 Cor. 5: 7. Just as the first handful of grain was waved before the Lord by the priest before the general harvest–was a pledge of the coming harvest in the type, so the resurrection of Christ was a pledge of the “resurrection of the just” (Luke 14: 14) to life eternal at Christ’s glorious second advent. 

      “And so it is written, ‘The first man Adam became a living being [“soul, Gen. 2: 7, KJV]. The last Adam became a life-giving spirit. However, the spiritual is not the first, but the natural, and afterward the spiritual. The first man was of the earth, made of dust: the second Man is the Lord from heaven [not from the dust of the ground]. As was the man of dust, so also are those who are made of dust; and as is the heavenly Man, so also are those who are heavenly. And as we have borne the image of the man of dust, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly Man.” 1 Cor. 14: 45-49. 

The two Adams: their origin, purpose, over-all nature, status, role, and authority in the beginning, and in the plan of redemption of the everlasting gospel.

The foremost of the similarities and distinct differences between the two Adams are these: 

     1.  The first Adam was the first human being–a totally different order of creation and superior over all other created beings—the very the crowning act and masterpiece of creation of the yet-to-be second or last Adam. The second or last Adam is and eternally remains to be the uncreated God, “God manifest in the flesh, “Emmanuel, being interpreted, God with us,” for in becoming a human being in the mystery of incarnation, He never ceased to be God, the great I AM who I Am, meaning, not subject to time. 

     2. The first Adam was “made a little lower than the angels,” that is, in the order of creation, for this original purpose: “You [the Creator] crowned him with glory and honor, and set him over the works of Your hands, and put all things in subjection under his feet. For in that He put all in subjection under him. He left nothing that is not put under him. But [because the first Adam chose to experiment with disobedience] we do not yet see all things put under him.” Heb. 2: 5-8.  Now, here’s where the second Adam differed: “But we see Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, [why and for what purpose?] for the suffering of death crowned with glory and honor, that He by the grace of God, might taste death for everyone.” v 9.     

     3. The first Adam came by way of and appeared on the yet-unfallen earth through the mystery of creation. The second Adam came by way of and appeared on the earth four thousand years after the fall through the mystery of incarnation.  

     4. The first Adam was “made” and formed from the dust of the yet-uncursed ground “in the image and likeness” of the Creator. The second Adam was not “made from the dust of the ground” but rather had “a body prepared for Him” (Heb. 10: 5) before the foundations of the earth were laid, anticipated and prepared for by Omniscience—that sinless body and its sinless life that was sacrificed for the sins of the world, “that one offering by which He has perfected forever those who are being sanctified” (Heb. 10: 14). He was “the Holy One” (the “holy thing,” KJV) that formed in the womb of the mortal virgin Mary nine months after the Holy Spirit “overshadowed” her. 

     5. When the first Adam died at the hoary old age of nine hundred thirty years (Gen. 5:5), his body “saw corruption,” the natural conclusion of mortality, and thus “returned to the dust of the ground.” Gen. 2: 7; 3: 19; Ps. 103: 13, 14; 104: 29; Eccl. 3: 20; 12:7. That is, death does not make any distinction whether rich or poor, king or slave, male or female even if Eve was not originally made directly from the dust of the ground but from a rib of Adam; but Adam was made from the dust of the ground.  

     When the second Adam died at the young age of thirty-three and a half years, 31 A.D., His human body, though “bruised for our iniquities” (Isa. 53: 5), with all its faculties, was physically sound and disease-free, for, as “the Lamb of God that takes away the sins of the world,” it and He was “without spot and blameless, having never been polluted by sin; for not even in thought did He once sin, though “tempted in all points as we are tempted” (Heb. 4: 15). That body “never saw corruption.” Neither was “a bone” or any of “His legs broken” (unlike that of the two thieves crucified with Him)—fulfilling specific prophesied details regarding His special kind of death. See Ps. 16:10; Acts 2: 27, 31; 13: 35-37; John 19: 32-36; cf. Ps. 34:20. 

      6.  The first Adam had no human father or mother for God Creator was his Maker.” He was never born, as all man are, after him, to start life on earth as an infant.  The first Adam was immediately a full-grown adult. He and his wife Eve, the mother of mankind, were the first and last created beings who never experienced physical birth, though all who will be eternally saved will have experienced spiritual birth; and if necessary, a spiritual rebirth after a falling away followed by a re-awakening, repentance, confession, reformation and sanctification. 

     The last Adam also had no human father for God the Father is His Father and He is the Father’s “only-begotten Son.” He, unlike the first Adam, the promised “seed of the woman” (Gen. 3: 15) was literally and physically born of a woman at the divinely-appointed time.  The Bible testifies: “But when the fulness of time came, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the law, to redeem those who were under [the curse] of the law, that we might receive the adoption as sons.” Gal. 4: 4, 5. He began life on earth, four thousand years after the fall, as that Infant with no sinful propensities—the holy yet helpless “Babe lying in the manger.” Luke 2: 16. Jesus the “holy Child” (Acts 4: 27) was innocent, helpless and vulnerable as all infants are. He needed and received the protection of Gabriel and the heavenly host as well as that of His earthly parents.           (To be continued next week).